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Posted By Admin on 06/05/2018 in Category 1

What is substance abuse?

What is substance abuse?

This is the use, misuse or the abuse of and for of drug or chemical substances that is usually against medical advice that may bring harm to the body.

Most Frequently use substance include: 

Alcohol

Marijuana/ Ganja

Tobacco

Hashish

Club drugs: Rohypnol Ecstasy, MDA, or ketamine

Benzodiazepines like Ativan and Valium

Narcotic painkillers: codeine and morphine

Over-the-counter drugs such as dextromethorphan and pseudoephedrine

Hallucinogens: LSD, mushrooms

Inhalants: glue, lighter fluid, gasoline, or paint thinner

Stimulants: methamphetamine or cocaine

Characteristics

  • Psychological dependency: emotional dependency desire or compulsion to continue taking drugs
  • Physical dependency: Physical need for the drug.
  • Tolerance dependency: gradual increase in the amount required to obtain the desired effect.

Alcohol Abuse                                        

This is one the most common used substance in Jamaica. This is the intake of alcohol (Rum or beer) that interferes with the normal functioning of the body.

Alcoholism

This is the abuse of any alcoholic substance combine with physical and psychological addiction. There is a dependency on ethanol, characterized by loss of control in drinking, inability to abstain from drinking and the presence of alcohol related disability.

Pre-disposing causes:

  • Stress
  • Influence
  • Social drinking
  • Hereditary
  • Peer pressure
  • Cultural Practices
  • Gate way drugs

There are four major signs of alcoholism these inclue:

  • Jocose: given to or characterized by joking
  • Bellicose: demonstrating aggression and willingness to fight.
  • Stuporous / Stupor: is the lack of critical mental function and a level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain.
  • Comatose: relating to or in a state of coma/ unconsciousness,

Being poorly adoptive to stress, the individual discovers that alcohol has a relieving and pleasant quality and that its quality is immediate. The pleasure is reinforced by more drinking. The pain and displeasure from increasing amount of alcohol are not important to the individual.

Physical effect of alcoholism:

Cirrhosis

Hepatitis

Oesophagitis

Gastritis

Duodenal Ulcer

Melaena stool

Pancreatitis

Malnutrition

Impotence

Renal Failure

Anemia

Cardiomegaly

General disability

Mental effects
Neurological effects
Social effects
  • Depression
  • Hypomania
  • Suicidal tenancy
  • Othello syndrome
  • Sexual deviance
  • Delirum
  • Amnesia
  • Neuritis
  • Seizures
  • Motor vehicle accidents
  • Crime and domestic violence
  • Marital stress

                                     

Persons that are alcoholic are said to have psychotic problems. The patient may feel worthless and there is a lack of self-esteem. They may also experience guilt. And may drink a lot because is unable to tolerate anxiety and there is a feeling of inadequacy. They may also have hidden fare and over sensitive with very poor interpersonal relationship and may tend to be manipulative an his whole aim is o secure money to purchase more alcohol.

Drug Addiction

This is a state of dependency which maybe physical, psychological or both on drugs or other than alcohol or tobacco, that involves alteration in perception or mood and is produced by repeated consumption of the drug.

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